A proper repair job would have avoided this accident! Japan Airlines Flight 123 (日本航空123便墜落事故 Nihonkōkū 123 Bin Tsuirakujiko) was a scheduled domestic Japan Airlines passenger flight from Haneda Airport (Tokyo International Airport) to Osaka International Airport, Japan. On Monday, August 12, 1985, a Boeing 747SR operating this route suffered mechanical failure 12 minutes into the flight and, 32 minutes later, crashed into two ridges of Mount Takamagahara in Ueno, Gunma Prefecture, 100 kilometres (62 miles) from Tokyo. The crash site was on Osutaka Ridge (御巣鷹の尾根 Osutaka-no-One), near Mount Osutaka. All 15 crew members and 505 of the 509 passengers on board died. It is the deadliest single-aircraft accident in history, the deadliest aviation accident to occur on Japanese soil, and the second-deadliest 747 air disaster and deadliest accident behind the 1977 Tenerife airport disaster. The fatalities added to August 1985 being commercial aviation's single deadliest month for passenger and crew deaths, part of the single deadliest such year, coming just ten days after the crash of Delta Air Lines Flight 191 killing 137 people and ten days before a fire on board British Airtours Flight 28M killed a further 55 people. Flight 123 pushed back from gate 18 at 6:04 pm and took off from Runway 15L at Tokyo International Airport (commonly referred to as Haneda Airport) in Ōta, Tokyo, Japan, at 6:12 pm, 12 minutes behind schedule. About 12 minutes after takeoff, at near cruising altitude over Sagami Bay, the aircraft's aft pressure bulkhead tore open due to a preexisting defect, stemming from a panel that had been incorrectly repaired after a tailstrike accident years earlier. This caused an explosive decompression, causing pressurized air to rush out of the cabin and bring down the ceiling around the rear lavatories. The air then blew the vertical stabilizer off the aircraft, severing all four hydraulic lines. A photograph taken from the ground some time later confirmed that the vertical stabilizer was missing. Loss of cabin pressure at high altitude caused a lack of oxygen throughout; emergency oxygen masks for passengers were deployed. Flight attendants, including one off-duty, administered oxygen to various passengers using hand-held tanks. This photograph shows the plane as it looked after explosive decompression. The vertical stabilizer is missing (circled in red). The pilots set their transponder to broadcast a distress signal. Tokyo Area Control Center directed the aircraft to descend and follow emergency landing vectors. Because of control problems, Capt. Takahama requested a vector to Haneda, knowing it was ideally suited for a 747 in case of an emergency. Hydraulic fluid completely drained away through the rupture. With total loss of hydraulic control and non-functional control surfaces, plus the lack of stabilizing influence from the vertical stabilizer, the aircraft began up and down oscillation in a phugoid cycle. In response, pilots exerted efforts to establish stability using differential engine thrust. Further measures to exert control, such as lowering the landing gear and flaps, interfered with control by throttle; the aircrew's ability to control the aircraft deteriorated. Upon descending to 13,500 feet (4100 m), the pilots reported an uncontrollable aircraft. Heading over the Izu Peninsula the pilots turned towards the Pacific Ocean, then back towards the shore; they descended below 7,000 feet (2100 m) before returning to a climb. The aircraft reached 13,000 feet (4000 m) before entering an uncontrollable descent into the mountains and disappearing from radar at 6:56 pm at 6,800 feet (2100 m). In the final moments, the wing clipped a mountain ridge. During a subsequent rapid plunge, the plane then slammed into a second ridge, then flipped and landed on its back. The aircraft's crash point, at an elevation of 1,565 metres (5,135 ft), is located in Sector 76, State Forest, 3577 Aza Hontani, Ouaza Narahara, Ueno Village, Tano District, Gunma Prefecture. The east-west ridge is about 2.5 kilometres (8,200 ft) north north west of Mount Mikuni. Ed Magnuson of Time magazine said that the area where the aircraft crashed was referred to as the "Tibet" of Gunma Prefecture. The elapsed time from the bulkhead explosion to when the plane hit the mountain was estimated at 32 minutes – long enough for some passengers to write farewells to their families. Subsequent simulator re-enactments with the mechanical failures suffered by the crashed plane failed to produce a better solution, or outcome; despite best efforts, none of the four flight crews in the simulations kept the plane aloft for as long as the 32 minutes achieved by the actual crew.
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The Boeing 757 is a mid-size, narrow-body twin-engine jet airliner that was built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes from 1981 to 2004. The twinjet has a two-crewmember glass cockpit, turbofan engines, a conventional tail, and for reduced aerodynamic drag, a supercritical wing design. Intended to replace the three-engined 727 on short and medium routes, the larger 757 can carry 200 to 289 passengers for a maximum of 3,150 to 4,100 nautical miles (5,830 to 7,600 km), depending on variant. The 757 was designed alongside a wide-body twinjet, the 767, and owing to shared features pilots can obtain a common type rating that allows them to operate both aircraft. The 757 was produced in two fuselage lengths. The original 757-200 entered service in 1983; the 757-200PF, a package freighter (PF) variant, and the 757-200M, a passenger-freighter combi model, debuted in the late 1980s. The stretched 757-300, the longest narrow-body twinjet ever produced, began service in 1999. Passenger 757-200s have been modified to special freighter (SF) specification for cargo use, while military derivatives include the C-32 transport, VIP carriers, and other multi-purpose aircraft. All 757s are powered by Rolls-Royce RB211 or Pratt & Whitney PW2000 series turbofans. Eastern Air Lines and British Airways placed the 757 in commercial service in 1983. The 757 has since been commonly used for short and medium range domestic flights, as well as transcontinental U.S. services. Its largest operators have included U.S. mainline carriers, European charter airlines, and cargo companies. In the late 1980s, following regulatory approval for extended overseas flights, airlines began using the 757 on medium length intercontinental routes. Government, military, and private customers have also customized the aircraft for transport and research roles. Production of the 757 ended on October 28, 2004, after 1,050 had been built, of which 913 were 757-200s. Diminished sales amid an airline industry trend toward smaller aircraft led Boeing to discontinue production in favor of the 737. The last 757 was delivered to Shanghai Airlines on November 28, 2005. In 2011, 898 of the narrow-body twinjets were in airline service, and Delta Air Lines was the largest operator, with 185 aircraft The 757-200M, a convertible version capable of carrying cargo and passengers on its main deck, entered service with Royal Nepal Airlines in 1988. Also known as the 757-200M Combi, the type retains the passenger windows and cabin doors of the 757-200, while adding a forward port-side cargo door in the manner of the 757-200PF. Kathmandu-based Royal Nepal Airlines, later renamed Nepal Airlines, included the convertible model as part of an order for two 757s in 1986. Side view of airliner in flight, with extended landing gear. Nepal Airlines' sole 757-200M arriving at Dubai International Airport Nepal Airlines ordered the 757-200M to fulfill a requirement for an aircraft that could carry mixed passenger and freight loads, and operate out of Tribhuvan International Airport in the foothills of the Himalayas. Patterned after convertible variants of the 737 and 747, the 757-200M can carry two to four cargo pallets on its main deck, along with 123 to 148 passengers in the remaining cabin space. Nepal Airlines' 757-200M, which features Rolls-Royce RB211-535E4 engines and an increased MTOW of 240,000 pounds (109,000 kg), was the only production example ever ordered. In October 2010, Pemco World Air Services and Precision Conversions launched aftermarket conversion programs to modify 757-200s into 757 Combi aircraft. Vision Technologies Systems launched a similar program in December 2011. All three aftermarket conversions modify the forward portion of the aircraft to provide room for up to ten cargo pallets, while leaving the remaining space to fit around 45 to 58 passenger seats. This configuration is targeted at commercial charter flights which transport heavy equipment and personnel simultaneously. Customers for converted 757 Combi aircraft include the Air Transport Services Group, National Airlines, and North American Airlines.
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